a.In case of + N (= If there is/are )
Eg: In case of a fire, you should use stair.
(= If there is a fire, you shoulh use stair)
b. In case + S + do/does/did + V (= Because it may/might happen)
Eg: He took an umbrella in case it rained
(= He took an unbrella because it might rain)
2. As a result và as a result of:
a. As a result (+ clause) = therefore
Eg: Bill had not been working very hard during the course. As a result, he failed the exams.
(= Bill had not been working very hard during the course. Therefore, he failed the exams)
b. As a result of (+ noun phrase) = because of
Eg: The accident happened as a result of the fog.
(= The accident happened because of the fog)
3. Hardly / Scarelyvà no sooner: (với nghĩa ngay khi)
a. Hardly/ Sccarely + clause 1 + when + clause 2
Eg: Hardly will he come when he wants to leave.
b. No sooner + clause 1 + than + clause 2
Eg: No sooner does she earn some money than she spends it all.